Kidney stones are hardened mineral deposits that form inside the kidney.
Kidney stones can cause mild to severe pain. Other symptoms of kidney stones can include :
- Blood in urine
- Pain at the side and back below the ribs
- Increase frequency of urination
- Urinating small amount of urine
- Pain during urination
A variety of test can be performed. These may include a CT scan, X-rays, ultrasound, and urinalysis. Blood tests can help look for high levels of minerals involved in forming kidney stones.
Small stones may be passed out with adequate intake of water. However if the stone does not passed out from the body on its own, surgery is considered. There are several options available :
- Retrograde Intrarenal surgery (RIRS)
- Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL)
Retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is a procedure to remove kidney stones by a flexible ureterorenoscope.
RIRS is recommended to treat small kidney stones.
No skin incision is required for RIRS. The advantages of RIRS over open surgery include a quicker solution of the problem, the elimination of prolonged pain after surgery, and much faster recovery.
PCNL is a minimal invasive procedure. It is recommended for bigger kidney stones.
Advantages of PCNL inlcudes lesser pain after operation as compared to open surgery, fewer complications in comparison to open surgery due to the small incision and minimally invasive access to the kidney.